Shoes & Solutions

Tomorrow, April 21, 2015, students across the campus of Northwest Missouri State, my Alma mater, will forego shoes in an effort to raise global awareness for children’s health and education. Organized by Toms Shoes, men and women across the United States will take off their shoes to alert their peers about the impact of shoes on a child’s life.

Beyond the stinking feet and the “no shoes, no service” ban in the student cafeteria, “One Day Without Shoes” is causing many problems.

It’s not just “One Day Without Shoes,” but the entire Toms buy-one-get one model.

In 2006, Toms was created to solve a social problem: children without shoes. While visiting Argentina, Blake, the company’s founder, saw this issue and had a vision for a business model. For every shoe it sells, Toms gives one away to a barefoot child in a developing country.

This sounds like a wonderful, charitable organization. “What’s wrong with giving away shoes to needy children?” you may ask.


In fact, in giving away shoes, Toms is actually undermining local economies by providing a short-term solution to a long-term problem. By undercutting local prices, Toms is hurting local manufacturers, distributors, and sellers of shoes.

As Time noted, “an increasing number of foreign aid practitioners and agencies are recognizing that charitable gifts from abroad can distort developing markets and undermine local businesses by creating an entirely unsustainable aid-based economy.”

Contrary to popular belief, Toms isn’t actually a company designed to build the economies of the developing world. As a for-profit company, it would be unable to sustain revenues under this business model. In reality, Toms’ model is built on making western consumers feel good.

Unfortunately, western consumers feel good at the expense of children in the developing world.

But what’s the solution to this issue? As a Peace Corps Volunteer, you may think I have all the answers to these development questions. However, in all actuality, I probably have more questions than you.

Let’s try to tackle this problem together.


Firstly, let’s understand the issues. Toms points out that children without shoes are at risk of contracting hookworm and other foot diseases. But simply providing a pair of shoes will not eradicate hookworm. Only vibrant, local economies with knowledge about these problems will have the power to create real change.

Lack of shoes is not the problem.

Secondly, let’s consider different business models. Toms could build more manufacturing facilities in developing countries. Currently, Toms has six factories for the more than sixty countries it donates to around the world. That’s less than one factory for every ten countries.

More factories means more people are employed in local economies.

Over the course of the past couple decades, a new business had popped up all over Africa: the trade of second-hand clothes from more affluent Western countries. In Senegal, these small boutiques and market stands are called fukinjays.

Clothes arrive from the United States, Europe, and even some Asian countries in cargo containers. After arriving at the port, middle men purchase bales of clothes, break them down, and sell them to vendors around the region. After passing through many middle men, these hand-me-downs arrive in local markets.

Although it may appear as if this is just as damaging as Toms, this industry is actually boosting local economies.

Second-hand clothes sold in a market. Photograph:

Second-hand clothes sold in a market. Photograph:

In her book, The Travels of a T-Shirt in a Global Economy, Pietra Rivoli describes this as the only time in a T-shirt’s life that it encounters a truly free market.

A nice pair of khaki pants may be sold for $5, a local fortune, while the jersey of a losing sports team will fetch a lower price than that of a winning one.

Each unique item is sold at the equilibrium price – where both buyers and sellers are happy with the price and quantity – unlike when a T-shirt lives in the commodity markets of cotton and manufacturing. This industry is dominated by small entrepreneurs while large foreign firms face high barriers of entry.

Although this fukinjay system is controversial – a few African governments have banned it to protect local garment businesses – it creates many jobs, 24,000 in Senegal alone, while providing low-cost clothing and shoes for men and women and children across sub-Saharan Africa.

As you can see, dumping free shoes in developing countries won’t solve these problems. The fukinjay system may be a possible solution, while continued health education and job creation for entrepreneurs is surely in the best interest of developing countries as well as the entire global economy.

The impact of Toms in the developing world is only one of many ongoing debates within the international development community. Aid, whether in the form of roads, schools or maternal health is a constant subject of consideration at any world forum.

This blog post can’t even begin to touch on the many issues faced in local economies.

With all of my heart, I believe the wearers of Toms want to do good. This post isn’t meant to offend or do harm, but to invite you to join the international community in making our world a better place. At the end of this post, you can find further readings.

In light of this, tomorrow, keep your shoes on. Instead, let’s look for the solutions to improve the lives of children all over the world that businesses like Toms can provide in partnership with local economies.

And to look for solutions, you’re gonna need your shoes.

Further reading:

The Case of TOMS Shoes in El Salvador
The Impact of Second-Hand Clothing Trade on Developing Countries
The Economics of TOMS Shoes
Aid to the Rescue


Log Among Crocodiles

the sun sets during rainy season

the sun sets during rainy season

The wise Pulaar say, “Leggal, ko waalii ka ndiyam woo, wontataa noora,” which, when literally translated, means “No matter how long it sits in the water, a log doesn’t turn into a crocodile.” Though I’m not sure if English has an equivalent saying, I hope this blog explains the meaning.

The theme of that past few months has been integration. Learning to speak Pulaar. Becoming familiar with Senegalese culture. And becoming a daughter, sister, aunt, and counterpart in my community.

Integration will continue throughout my service.

But, no matter how well I speak Pulaar or how tan I become, I will never be Senegalese. I will always be a log among crocodiles.

Many international development agencies working in Africa come into communities with huge budget and big plans. They build wells and roads. They vaccinate and hand out bed nets. They educate and train. They know what Africa needs, yet, Africa is still underdeveloped.

Logs among crocodiles.

Coming into my community three months ago, I had no ideas. No plans. As I prepare to begin my work in Velingara, I still have no plans.

This is not my country. After two years, I’m going to return to the United States, leaving Senegal behind. If Senegal is to be a better place after I leave, the projects I implement must be sustainable. To be sustainable, the community must own the projects, making them their own. My ideas cannot be forced upon Senegal.

Senegal will develop, but it will develop because it wants to, not because I force it to.

Integrating into my community does not just mean speaking the language and understanding the culture. It means spending time intentionally developing relationships. Spending hours drinking three rounds of tea. Dropping by a compound for lunch. And having evening conversations that last late into the night.

And, slowly, the ideas begin to flow. Not from me, but from the local people. And when ideas develop, I serve as a source of knowledge and connection to other resources.

Because I am a log among crocodiles.

And a log must learn to listen instead of talking. Though I will never become a crocodile, I hope that the projects I plan and implement throughout the next two years come from my community and not from me.

They know what they need, and a log can’t stand in the way of a crocodile.